Stereoscopic surfaces constructed from Kanizsa-type illusory contours or explicit luminance contours were tested for three-dimensional (3-D) shape constancy. The curvature of the contours and the apparent viewing distance between the surface and the observer were manipulated. Observers judged which of two surfaces appeared more curved. Experiment 1 allowed eye movements and revealed a bias in 3-D shape judgment with changes in apparent viewing distance, such that surfaces presented far from the observer appeared less curved than surfaces presented close to the observer. The lack of depth constancy was approximately the same for illusory-contour surfaces and for explicit-contour surfaces. Experiment 2 showed that depth constancy for explicit-contour surfaces improved slightly when fixation was required and eye movements were restricted. These experiments suggest that curvature in depth is misperceived, and that illusory-contour surfaces are particularly sensitive to this distortion.
Vreven, Dawn L. and Welch, Leslie. "The Absence of Depth Constancy in Contour Stereograms." Perception 30, no. 6 (2001): 693-705. Accessed at https://digitalcommons.framingham.edu/psych_facpub/3