Delayed Lactogenesis in Women with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition


Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology, Eating, Female, Humans, Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Infant, Newborn, Lactation, Lactose/analysis, Milk, Human/chemistry, Nitrogen/analysis, Osmolar Concentration, Substances

Subject Categories



Breast milk lactose, total nitrogen, conductivity, osmolality, and intake by infants of 33 women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), 33 control women without diabetes, and 11 reference women were determined in a 3-mo study of lactation. Milk of women with IDDM had significantly lower lactose and higher total nitrogen (2-3 d postpartum), and their infants had significantly less milk intake (7-14 d postpartum) than did control or reference women. Total nitrogen was negatively correlated with milk lactose for women with IDDM at all times and for control women through day 14 postpartum. The data indicate delayed lactogenesis for women with IDDM, which was more likely to occur with poor metabolic control. Differences in milk composition of women with IDDM do not preclude them from breast-feeding their infants.