Men and women college students completed survey packets assessing academic performance and grade-related attributions. Within each packet was one of nine scenarios in which anticipated and received exam grades were manipulated. Ratings demonstrate consistent externalizing of performance-related exam blame when received grades deviated negatively from expected grades. Internalization was only evident when received grades were high, regardless of anticipated exam grades. Support for the self-serving bias is clear.
Griffin, Crystal and Glatthorn, Kristen
"Gender Differences in Academic Attribution and the Effects of Negative Feedback and Self-Esteem,"
FSU Journal of Behavioral Sciences:
1, Article 10.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.framingham.edu/journal_of_behavioral_sciences/vol10/iss1/10